Author: Geraldine Patrick

The Inquisition in Yucatan, Mexico: Mistreatment of Mayan Priests

Last December 15-19, I attended a Symposium on Mayan History and Religion in Malmö University, Sweden.  One of the most outstanding components of the program was the offer of three-day courses, among which featured one on Paleography of Colonial Texts. It was offered by John Chuchiak, Director of both the Honors College and the Latin American, Caribbean, and Hispanic Studies Program at Missouri State University (photo above). Dr. Chuchiak has focused most of his research on the Franciscan Missions, the Inquisition and the Catholic Church in Colonial Yucatán, Mexico.

Author of The Inquisition in New Spain 1536-1820. A Documentary History, Dr. Chuchiak has translated and examined hundreds of documents of inquisitorial proceedings made against traditional Mayan priests who were trialed and sentenced to death or to jail by the inquisidores of New Spain.

Mayan priests were severely punished for performing ritual ceremonies that had been systematically executed for at least three thousand years. The highly conservative character of ceremonial protocols can be attested by comparing ceremonies depicted in Mayan codexes with those described during inquisitorial trials and those still performed by traditional Mayan priests today.

Rituals are propitiatory for the well-being of socio-ecological systems, where human beings are conscious of how their thoughts and actions facilitate or disrupt the web of life. Priests carry out ceremonies to help maintain harmony in the world at all scales of the time-space matrix. They do this because they abide by the original instructions and laws of co-evolution that were set in place by the first Father-Mother who made life spring from Mother Earth, the Green Turtle (indeed, the same term as Turtle Island for northern first nations).

The thriving landscapes that invaders first saw was the unfolding process of peoples interconnected to the web of life through year-round ceremonies under very elaborate protocols that included fasting and abstinence.

For most Mayan families and communities, the violence perpetrated to their complex living systems at the symbolic, psychological, moral, emotional and physical level is still patent. Undeniably, their spiritual and ecological integrity is under threat today as harshly as in yester days. This is because the Doctrine of Discovery and its logic are still at work: idle lands must be taken and exploited for the sake of capitalism, and dispossessed inhabitants must be forced to accept new laws, be of service, keep a low profile and remain obedient.

Idolatry has been a deeply stigmatizing accusation and a violation to the integrity of original peoples whose way of living is defined by a spirituality of the collective soul. Every ceremony has many prayers, songs, dances and spiritual foods for the continuity of life processes and death processes. The belief that many spiritual forms of the Great Spirit manifest among us because of the diverse and creative ways of expressing love to us, must be respected without prejudice. The reciprocal practices that we have consistently seen are well received by the Great Spirit, must be respected too. Such practices entail sympathetic magic and a great deal of symbolic interplay with the pantheon of spirits –both good and evil. The mastery lies in knowing how and when to acknowledge each kind of spirit, and how to make the ones that give life and love prevail. Life and love, the most potent co-creative energies in all realms of Earth and the cosmos, must be fed with thoughts and intentions of ongoing life and love. That is how good spirits and the goodness of the Great Spirit, prevail.

Accusers of idolatry must have had close encounters with evil forces, most probably because of the impurity of their minds and illness of their intentions as they set foot on Turtle Island with granted authority to vanquish, enslave and kill. Traumatizing experiences of evil is the only explanation of their phobia for ancestral traditional ceremonial practices and practitioners. To see today accusers of idolatry within Mayan towns is not surprising: wise Mayan priests persevere in their practices because, to them, connection with divine forces of creation and life is how the continuing evolution of Mother Earth’s life can be maintained.

Ethiopia, Land of Origins, Hosted Interfaith Event for a Culture of Peace, Harmony and Human Dignity

By Mindahi Bastida

Let us be the change we want to see in the world by living according to the teaching of the Golden Rule as stated in different religious holy books, which says “Treat others the way you want to be treated”, was the call of the organizers of an Interfaith encounter for a Culture of Peace, Harmony and Human Dignity.

The event took place on February 2nd, 2018, as part of the World Interfaith Harmony Week of United Nations. It was organized by the Inter-Religious Council of Ethiopia, the United Religious Initiative-Africa, U-Day Festival, the African Ombudsman and Mediators Association and World Peace Prayer Society in partnership with the Africa Union Commission Department of Civil Society and Diaspora Directorate.

Guest of honor President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia gave the opening remarks while Honorable Mr. Antonio Guterres, Secretary General of the United Nations, offered a message of peace. Religious and spiritual leaders also spoke words of wisdom and hope, among which featured the Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the President of Ethiopian Islamic Affairs Supreme Council and international figures like Thai Buddhist Monk Venerable Phramaha Boonchuay Doojai as well as representatives of the Orthodox Jewish, the Bahai’ Faith and the Sikh Faith.

Indigenous spiritual leaders whose call for peace and unity has been heard beyond their local regions, were invited to share how they too remind their people of the covenants and laws of origin, that speak of how to treat Mother Earth and all her beings with kindness, respect and love.

Indigenous Delegation at the Closing Official Ceremony of the Event at the Africa Union Commission Plenary Hall.

Phil Lane Jr., Chairman of the Compassion Games, Sam Cook and Australian Indigenous representative and Mindahi Bastida, from the Otomi Peoples of Mexico and director of Original Caretakers initiative at the Center for Earth Ethics, each had the opportunity to expose their commitment to care for Earth and all beings to achieve Peace, Harmony and Dignity.

Mindahi Speech Feb 2 2018 African Union

Message at the African Union – Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. February, 2018.

Mindahi Bastida

My name is Mindahi Bastida, of the Otomi-Toltec ancestral Peoples of Mexico. I am representing the Center for Earth Ethics and its Original Caretakers Program. It is a big honor to greet Ethiopia, Land of Origins. We pay respect to the original peoples and territories and also to the African Union.

We greet the original peoples of Ethiopia and all of Africa as an important continent that can give light to the world in times of Climate Change and concerning biocultural erosion.

According to our prophecies and ancestral knowledge, 5000 years B.C. ago some human beings began to go in another direction and began to take over Nature. Others remained as caretakers of what original peoples call Mother Earth, living in harmony and balance with divine creation. But in many places harmony was broken, and this situation prevails until today, deeply affecting the material and spiritual compounds of life.

Furthermore, the invasions and colonization of the world that biocultures were affected and many species and cultures disappeared provoking imbalance of the good living. In spite of the devastating effects of global colonialism, many Original Peoples, also known as Indigenous Peoples, have successfully kept their ancestral practices, cosmologies and philosophies. An ancient basis of wisdom is known collectively as the life originating principles, through which we continue to interact with the sacred-spiritual, nature-material and with other cultures.

This original counsel, based in the original instructions, brings together our ancestral wisdom, our current perception of the endangered world and our actions. 

People, who have acted as allies of ancestral cultures and wisdom for the permanence of life and of original peoples, are aware of the mounting crisis that all beings face in many levels. The world is experiencing the end result of a different kind of knowledge whose implementation has been provoking a des-harmonious, fragmented and highly destructive way of interaction and relationship with nature, cultures and celestial bodies.

More and more, it becomes evident that the recovery of harmony, peace, unity and dignity lies in our return to the sacred origins of the ancestral wisdom, where human beings are an integral part of creation and not the peak of creation.

The recovery of harmony is not just tangible but also intangible, and collective consciousness is vital to address harmony in the spiritual and material worlds.  This harmony and balance must be reflected among all beings, according to time and space order.

Then, peace can be achieved not just among human beings but also with Nature and Mother Earth. It is urgent to restrict the anthropocentric thought and return to the original principles. We need to make peace with Mother Earth and her sacred elements and nature.

Peace and Dignity are intertwined principles; we as human beings can achieve dignity if we go beyond the greed and commodification of “things” and respect life through reciprocal actions. We want to strengthen families, communities, biocultures, Mother Earth and our relationship with all beings working together and pulling together. We want an integrated world based on dialogue, reciprocity and complementarity that will carry all through far more than just seven generations.

For us unity is all about the Unification Process. This process is a mandate from indigenous spiritual leaders to respond to our planetary and civilizational crisis, emphasizing that all beings, including the celestial bodies are integral components of the life systems, must be taken into account to produce balance and harmonization in the world.

In achieving Harmony, Peace, Unity and Dignity we should:

Strengthen the work of those who, in continuity with their “originating principles/law of origin”, sustain to this date the ancient wisdom and spiritual traditional practices that preserve the sacred balance of Earth.

Remind those who were given their “original instructions”, and that may have drifted from them due to their own historical processes, to revive their biocultural identity as a way back to their ancient ways, which will give them once again a sense of belonging and meaning in the sacred web of life.

Bring awareness to those who have completely lost, or never had, the understanding that they too are an integral part of the natural world and as such need to learn they are here to contribute to sustaining it for themselves and for those who are yet to come.

Practice tolerance, intercultural dialogue and mutual cooperation for the sake of biocultural diversity. These are among the strongest warranties of peace and security at local and international levels.

In sum, we, together, in a Process of Unification, need to be engaged in restoring harmony and balance of Mother Earth for the sake of human life and all beings. We need to think and act at local and global levels and think beyond intergenerational equity: we must leave a legacy of good generations for Mother Earth.

Kjamadi – May love and blessings be with us, the land of origins and your families.

 

Encounters with Plant Medicine Tradition in Mexico

While in Mexico last July, 2017, I had three encounters with traditional, local, Medicinal Plants experts. The first was in the recently created Clinic of Mazahua Traditional Medicine at the Intercultural University of Mexico State which Mindahi Bastida Munoz co-founded in 2004 in San Felipe del Progreso, Estado de Mexico.

Geraldine at Phytomedicine Lab in the Mazahua Medical Center, Universidad Intercultural del Estado de Mexico.

 

 

Rocio Albino, a dear ex-colleague and agro-ecologist who built the greenhouse at the Intercultural University of Mexico State as a hands-on teaching tool.
At the university there is also a greenhouse where native and non-native students, local Mazahua farmers and local agro-ecology professors grow a wide variety of native plants that are sold locally to promote organic nutrition among local native Mazahua people.
The next encounter was in Tulum, Yucatán with an expert in Mayan medicine and Chinese acupuncture, Javier Hirose, PhD. He has been able to describe the similarities between the Mayan and Chinese energy meridians and has published a great resource document about it.
Javier Hirose and his students from across the area of Yucatan.
Preparing a tincture with local plants and local residents.
Finally, I was able to share with a community of young Mayan researchers who are also making plant medicine according to their elder’s guidance. Their center is called Raxalaj Mayan AC and they are very interested in my research on the Mayan Calendar. We held a very enriching conversation about how they are exploring ways to recover traditional philosophy and wisdom, and how to share it with younger generations. It was deeply moving! Thanks to Angel and the rest of the group!
Entrance to the Community Center of Mayan Art and Wisdom.
As you may know, our Herbalist in Residence and dear colleague Poppy Jones is beginning to offer a series of workshops about plant medicine to Union students. It is such an opportunity for us to connect with Earth and with the principles of healing and harmonizing that she unconditionally offers. It is a kind of connection that is spiritual and reciprocal in ways that can fully be comprehended when having an immersive experience. Walking with Poppy in the woods is one way of entering that space of our psyche where the heart becomes our ears and eyes, and words need not be spoken to communicate what plants are telling.

The Return of the Dead in Mayan Tradition

Corn-Human Life and Death Cycles

In the wake of Mayan civilization some 5,000 years ago, corn and humans became one. Till today, humankind’s flesh is believed to made from corn dough. The intimate corn-human relation is kept alive by reflecting how death and birth cycles are interwoven. When the corn seed is in-terred, it is as though a dead human is buried. When, at the closing of the season, corn cobs are fully ripe, it is as if the dead person surfaces to join the living.

An antagonist corn-human metaphor in Mayan philosophy entails alive impersonators instead of dead impersonators. It speaks of how a human seed travels into the womb so to emerge as a baby, and how a corn seed enters the earth so to become a baby, too. Human and corn seeds go through a 260-day full-being formation cycle. For both, the 260-day cycle is lead by Venus, a time-councilor for mothers who are home-and-cornfield caretakers.

Be it as morning star or evening star, when Venus’s first appearance coincides with February 12th “blessing of the seeds” -seeds soon to be buried- and with the “announcement of human pregnancy” -no menstrual blood-, something striking happens. The star accompanies the gestation cycle of both the human baby and the corn baby. Both will ripen and be ready by November 1st. Only then, Venus star shall sink in the horizon, for its infusion of vital energy is now completed.

Month “Skull” in the Original Calendar of the Maya

Societies of Mesoamerica have always been organized by calendars that mark times for rituals. Back then and till today there are specific times for hunting, rain making, corn growing and harvesting. For the Mayan peoples in Southern Mexico, the Original Calendar instructed them to expect their dead on November 1st through to November 20th. That month was called Tzec, meaning “Skull”, and the glyph of the month was a skull. (Image above.)

For Mayan people of Pomuch, Campeche, tradition says that skulls of their dead relatives must be pulled out of the boxes and cleaned with much reverence and respect -like the rest of the bones. Once clean, family members offer their dead special food and drink, including toys if children and liquor and tobacco if adults. Eight days later another offering is made and, towards the end of November, there is a special farewell.

 

Skulls in Homuch, Campeche.
Skulls in Homuch, Campeche, are brought among the living in month Tzek (Skull). Photo by Katelyn published by Julio Garcia Castillo.

Why Did Two Cultures Pick November For Their Dead?

Currently my colleagues from Universidad de Oriente are visiting places and promoting intergenerational conversations. They intend to better understand how the original twenty-day ‘month’ of Tzec was juxtaposed by the Christian month of November. Surely, there are reasons of cultural survival: not using Christian references cost Mayan priests their lives. But it is fascinating to see how a culture as old as the Mayan picked November 1st some 2,600 years ago, while All Saints celebration (also on November 1st) was incepted by Gregory IV in middle of the ninth century.

Is there some natural phenomenon at that instant of time that facilitates communication between the dead and the alive? Perhaps yes, but clearly, agricultural cycles must be playing a role in how human minds conceive the interring of a seed as an act of bringing to life fully-grown fruits. Both Western and Mesoamerican are agricultural societies on the same hemisphere. Surely, November is a good month to reflect about how the hoop of death and life is closed.